Victimology is the science of studying victimization and victim-perpetrator relationships and the interaction between the victim and the criminal justice system.1 This research is aimed at the most vulnerable class in society, .dem “child victims.” In India, more than 53% of children are victims of crimes that affect sexually, physically, emotionally and spiritually. Research should focus on the multidimensional aspects of the child victim, including sociological, psychological and legal aspects. The victimization of the child begins from the date the child is conceived in the womb. The victim of an immature age of the child has a greater traumatic effect, which often lasts throughout his life and leads to various mental and physical disorders. It was regrettable that, despite various laws and court decisions, the State was not achieving the true objective of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and Article 21 of the Constitution of India. The noble purpose of the research is to examine and discuss various issues related to the victimization of children due to emerging crimes in India. Keywords: victimology, child sacrifice, crime, vulnerable. In England, legal education was born at the end of the thirteenth century through apprenticeship. The Inns of Court controlled admission to practice and also provided legal training. English universities had taught Roman law and canon law for some time, but formal degrees focused on Indigenous common law did not emerge until the 1800s.

[4] Legal education in Korea is determined by examinations. The legal profession is highly regulated and the bar exam pass rate is approximately five per cent. Aspiring lawyers who pass the exam usually take it two or three times before taking it, and there are a number of specialized “private educational institutes” for aspiring lawyers. After passing the bar examination, prospective lawyers attend a two-year training course at the Judicial Research and Training Institute of the Supreme Court of Korea. During this period, the most competent trainees are “selected” to become professional judges; Others may become prosecutors or private practitioners. In 2004, the Japanese Parliament passed a law allowing the establishment of law schools (法科大学院, hōka daigakuin) offering a J.D. or Hōmu Hakushi (法務博士). The 2006 bar exam was the first in Japan`s history to require a law school degree as a prerequisite.

In the past, most of those who passed the exam had earned bachelor`s degrees from “elite” universities such as the University of Tokyo, Kyoto University, or Hitotsubashi University, even though there were no educational requirements. With this new law school system came a new bar exam with a transition rate of 40-50%, which is limited by a numerical quota. Candidates are now limited to taking the exam three times per five-year period. Despite the much higher bar pass rate with the new exam, about half of Japanese law graduates are never admitted to practice because of quotas. The new system also reduced the apprenticeship period at the Institute for Legal Research and Training to one year. [8] The Bar Council of India prescribes and oversees the standard of legal education in India. In India, law degrees are awarded under the Lawyers Act, 1961, a law passed by Parliament on the aspect of legal education and the regulation of the conduct of the legal profession. Various regional universities or national law universities offer law degrees through different law schools. In this chapter, we attempt to refute the view that clinical legal education has a special relationship with the common law. We argue that experiential learning in general and clinical legal education in particular are beneficial in any legal system, including one that belongs to the civil law family.

We examine the theoretical basis for this assertion and find that the rationale for promoting experiential learning also applies to legal education in civil and customary law systems. We then try to clarify why experiential learning encounters particular resistance in the civil law environment. We return to the debates of the 19th century on legal education. This allows us to find the seed of a possible convergence between civil and customary law systems when it comes to introducing a level of experiential learning into legal curricula. We show that a more prominent role for employment-type situations in legal education, including in civil law contexts, would be consistent with elements of the civil law tradition in legal education as well as with the more contemporary Europe-wide transition to a competence-based approach in higher education. We do not try to minimize the obstacles that hinder this development of continental education systems. We distinguish between objections and obstacles. Primary school law degrees are offered by law schools, known as law schools in some countries. Law schools may have varying degrees of autonomy within a particular university or be completely independent of other post-secondary institutions in some countries. Prior to the introduction of the law school system in 2004, the legal education system was dominated more by examinations than by formal education. The bar exam pass rate was historically about three percent, and almost everyone who took the exam took it multiple times.

A number of specialized schools trained potential lawyers for the exam, and these schools are still widely used today. After passing the bar exam, prospective lawyers had to undergo 16 months of training at the Institute of Legal Research and Training of the Supreme Court of Japan. The training period is traditionally devoted to litigation practice and virtually no training is given for other aspects of legal practice, e.g. contract drafting, legal research. During this period, the “most capable trainees” are “selected” as professional judges; Others may become prosecutors or private practitioners. Legal education programs (also called professional development) are informal seminars or short courses that provide legal practitioners with the opportunity to update their knowledge and skills throughout their legal careers. In some jurisdictions, it is mandatory to take a certain legal training course each year. Canon law and ecclesiastical law were studied in the universities of medieval Europe. However, institutions that provide education in each country`s national legislation emerged later in the eighteenth century. As a Commonwealth country, Malaysia`s legal education system is rooted in the UK. Legal qualifications offered by local law schools require students to have a pre-university degree such as Malaysian Graduate Certificate, A-Level, International Baccalaureate, Core Course or Diploma. In general, law degree programs in Malaysia consist of civil law subjects, but there are institutions such as the National University of Malaysia, the International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin that include courses in Sharia or Islamic law as a prerequisite for admission and graduation.

[13] [14] [15] Law programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. Therefore, admission to law schools requires completion of a bachelor`s degree with a sufficient number of credits or credits in certain specialties. In the Philippines, legal education is regulated and supervised by the Council of Legal Education, an independent body legally established and chaired by a retired member of the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals. Its first president was Judge Hilarion Aquino. The members of the Council are a representative of law professors, a representative of law deans and a representative of the Commission de l`enseignement supérieur. The membership of a student representative is the subject of ongoing debate and opposition from law schools. Graduation from a Philippine law school is the main requirement for the Philippine Bar exams, which are held by the Supreme Court each September.