The Ethiopian judicial system consists of a dual system with parallel judicial structures: federal courts and state courts with an independent administration. The Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo has delegated federal power to the Federal Court of Justice, which is a chamber of cassation and presides over the decisions of the lower federal courts, with an ordinary division responsible for examining fundamental errors of law. Sections 3, 4 and 5 govern the conduct of federal courts on domestic and international matters. This article examines how the judicial system would fit into the Ethiopian legal system. The Ethiopian legal system is largely part of the civil justice system. Conversely, the judicial system is a distinctive feature of the common law system. Under article 4, federal courts retain criminal jurisdiction; Crimes against national and foreign states, international law, fiscal and economic policy of the federal government, counterfeiting to imitate central government instruments, security and freedom of communication operating at the regional or international level, air security, defense of foreigners and victimization, illegal smuggling of drugs and dangerous substances, and general state and federal jurisdiction and association of government without liability and homework. [6] The Federal Supreme Proclamation granted the federal courts three principles in the decision on the merits: the laws, parties and places determining the jurisdiction of the Federal Court, first, “matters arising under the Constitution, federal laws and international treaties”, and second, “parts determined by federal laws.” [5] Article 3, paragraph 3, stipulates that the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction over the judicial system conferred by the Constitution and federal law. Since 2000, the government has sought to reform the judiciary with the help of funds from external donors.

In 2002, the Ministry of Capacity launched a judicial reform programme, which proposed a number of recommendations from the 2005 baseline study report to all actors in the justice system. [7] Ethiopia follows the parliamentary system in which the main political parties represented in the HoPR can chair/approve the members of the Executive Council of the Prime Minister and the Prime Minister. [8] [9] In addition, the HoPR is also empowered to appoint or stand for the presidency, which would be approved by a two-thirds majority of both chambers. [10] The president has minimal or limited power in the executive branch,[11] but can sign new HoPR laws,[12] while the prime minister is the executive branch, similar to presidential systems. [13] The second part of the draft law on mediation contains Articles 11 to 20, which focus on defining and explaining the mediation procedure itself. For example, Article 11 explains what the parties must do before the mediation process begins. Article 12 states that attendance is mandatory, while Article 13 explains the private nature of the mediation process. Section 17 provides that the mediator shall perform his or her duties within the time fixed by the parties or, failing such agreement, within 90 days of the acceptance of his or her appointment. The third part of the Mediation Bill contains clauses 20 to 25, which provide options at the end of the mediation process. For example, Article 22(1) provides that `mediation shall, as far as possible, result in a settlement agreement between the parties`, while Article 24(1) provides that if `the mediation does not end in a settlement agreement, the mediator shall draw up a non-settlement agreement`. The fourth part of the draft law on mediation contains various provisions (Articles 26-29).

It should be noted that Article 28 is a very important standard when it states that “a mediator may not act as arbitrator or advocate in subsequent adversarial proceedings between the same parties and the same issues in the dispute in mediation. HoPR members are elected by the people for a five-year term known as the first-past-the-post electoral system. [14] [15] [16] The DPR`s tasks are to enact legislation on matters within federal jurisdiction and to ratify national policy norms. [17] [18] Other responsibilities include appointing federal judges, ratifying international agreements, and supervising members of the executive branch. The Federal Supreme Court has a seat in Addis Ababa with a national court. Ethiopia`s judicial system has fallen to a low level of impartiality, integrity and competence. The courts are subject to long delays and have suffered from the intrusion of politicians and bureaucrats. According to the 2005 report on legal reforms, the judiciary was inaccessible, corrupt, politicized and underfunded.

It has lost its independence in state affairs. For example, Oromia Supreme Court Justice Teshale Abera and Federal Judge Wolde-Michael Meshesha fled the country after opening an investigation into electoral fraud during the 2005 general elections. [7] Although rigorous seminars were held for local and state judges, they did not raise the fundamental issues raised by the baseline study. Henok Gabisa, a prominent Oromo activist in the United States, said the reform budget was being used politically to intervene with judges. In the meantime, the judicial system has developed slightly. [7] Since the adoption of the new Ethiopian constitution in 1995, the Ethiopian legal system consists of federal laws with a bicameral parliament. [1] The House of People`s Representatives (HoPR) is the lower house of the bicameral legislature of the Parliamentary Assembly with 547 seats and the Federal Chamber with 108 seats, the former delegating executive power to the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, and the latter being empowered to interpret federal laws and supervise regional and federal decisions. · ensure the security of borders, airports, rail lines and terminals, mining areas and other vital federal government institutions; · It regularly submits reports to the House of Peoples` Representatives on the work of the executive branch and on its plans and proposals.