The court determines who should be punished and who should not. The procedures are followed and the author is found guilty with evidence. In various laws, the dominant spirit is justice, not vengeance. In the perception of justice, punishment is a fundamental element. Every crime is a form of injustice to society. The purpose of all penal systems is to punish offenders and protect society from the repetition of crimes. Guilt binds the guilty to the debtor by the conscience that accuses him and a curse that persecutes him. Guilt thus takes on an aspect of revenge, because conscience and curse exercise vengeance and yet are agents in the general order of life. They are the vengeance exercised by the gods. They represent the life force of the gods and their power to assert themselves, the need to instruct the gods to restore their own honor and fulfill the responsibilities they have on earth.

Therefore, the symbolism associated with revenge is very closely related to ancestor worship, cult of the dead, belief in the soul, land ownership, and magical rituals. Punishment, however, involves not only revenge and punishment, but also promise. But those who open themselves to new hope must free themselves from their old guilt. This term is the basis for the discussion of the concept of retribution in the Bible and therefore has both an archaic and eschatological meaning. The biblical concept is one of God`s actions as God. Both aspects are fundamental to the biblical concept of retribution. He who does something suffers a fate, and he who undergoes a fate must also do something. Many biblical expressions contain this reciprocity: doing evil is the same as suffering misfortune, doing good is suffering blessing.

The culprit is the one who is in misfortune. Being guilty is like convicting someone guilty; fidelity and consistency; wickedness as misfortune; reward and work; The path of life as a way of life. This reciprocity of action and result is guaranteed by Yahweh himself, the tribal god of Israel. It is he who fully develops this reciprocity. From a system of private revenge to a system in which the state insisted that the injured person accept compensation instead of revenge. In case of attack (injuria), when one man broke the limb of another, the talio was always allowed (i.e. the injured person could inflict the same injury as . This explains why many languages use the same word for bride price and blood price. Among the Maengues of New Britain, the word kuru (literally “head”) means “both the human life required for revenge and the treasures given to a bride`s family at her wedding” (Verdier, 1980, p. 28). The bride herself can be blood money.

Among the Bedouin, the daughter of a murderer`s next of kin is the price to pay. It belongs to the son, brother or father of the man killed as compensation for the loss suffered, until he gives birth to a son; She does not regain her freedom until this child is an adult and cannot carry weapons. “Among the Mundang of Africa, the king can compensate the brother of a victim with a woman instead of cattle; When she gives birth to a son, the repair is complete; The husband must then pay a price to his parents-in-law” (ibid., p. 29). Revenge can therefore take a bloodless form and contribute to peace; The person who takes revenge now breathes freely and is satisfied. His act affirms the right to life and honor: “The righteous will rejoice when he sees vengeance; he will bathe his feet in the blood of the wicked” (Ps 58:11). So to avenge a murder is to avenge honor and extinguish shame. In many societies, this is the decisive motive for revenge. “A man who is vilified is like a weakling.

He cannot recover his honour without shedding blood” (ibid., p. 19). Among the Moussey of Cameroon, a man is judged by the enemies he killed. When he marries, he must answer his father-in-law`s ritual question: “Who did you kill to win my daughter`s hand?” Revenge is based on a complex that involves feelings of honor and shame. In today`s society, people tend to seek revenge rather than justice. When people are wronged, they want revenge regardless of the consequences. The difference between these two acts is that justice is administered according to the law of society, but with all one`s might, one tends to take the law into one`s own hands, and anger controls these acts instead of love, which determines how justice is sought. The rules of revenge also include provisions to prevent escalation into cycles of revenge. These provisions include the exclusion of damages that do not justify revenge (murder as opposed to murder), the determination of the places and times at which revenge is limited (the criminal caught in the act), a wider range of compensation and substitutions that can replace revenge (wergeld) and the provision of places of refuge or places where revenge is absolutely prohibited (cities of refuge, palaces, temples, churches).