Figure 1 A. The water-based filter removes UV and far infrared light only has Near infrared light (NIR) remains; B. NIR light penetrates the skin 3-4 cm deep; C. NIR light repairs damaged celss and accelerates the healing process; D. NIR stimulates the cell’s mitochondria to increase energy production.
Mechanism of Near Infrared light therapeutic effects
As we know, all plants perform photosynthesis which converts sunlight and water into glucose and oxygen (photo energy-chemical energy). Cellular biologists have determined that our bodies use a similar principle in the final digestive process whereby proteins, fats and sugars are broken down within the mitochondrion membrane into the smallest molecular nutrient elements, called pyruvates and produce ATP energy1.
Certain light wavelengths such as near infrared, on the low level of the color spectrum stimulate the mitochondrion membrane to produce ATP2. ATP is the fuel that all cells utilize to perform cellular activities, including DNA and RNA synthesis, cellular repair and collagen production (Figure 1). One of the primary effects of NIR is on cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondria. When cells are stressed, their mitochondria produce nitric oxide (NO) which displaces oxygen in the electron transport chain3. This prevents ATP production and increases oxidative stress leading to inflammation and cell death. NIR photo-dissociates NO from cytochrome C oxidase leading to restoration of ATP production, a reduction of oxidative stress and subsequently a reduction in inflammation4. The effects will lead to increase of growth factors secretion and activation of enzymes and other secondary messengers. These will improve tissue repair such as accelerated regeneration of skin, muscle, tendon, ligament, bone and neural tissue, reverse and inhibit nerve conduction in small and medium diameter peripheral nerve fibres that release chronic pain and resolve inflammation5-8.
Figure 2 . The spectrum of Genesis pain relief light is from 400 to 1400 nm. The total output power is 4.9 W in high and 2.3 W in low scale. The Power Intensity is 339 mW/cm2 in high and 161 mW/cm2 in low scale (measured at a distance of 3 cm from light window). The therapeutic windows of skin (600-700nm), connective tissue (700-800nm), muscle and spinal cord (750-850nm), blood (800-900nm) and nerve (900-1100nm) are all included into this spectrum*. The therapeutic window defines the range of wavelengths where light has its maximum depth of penetration in tissue.
*Kimberly R. Byrnes, Ronald W. Waynant, Ilko K. Ilev, Xingjia Wu, Lauren Barna, Kimberly Smith, Reed Heckert, Heather Gerst, and Juanita J. Anders. Light Promotes Regeneration and Functional Recovery and Alters the Immune Response after Spinal Cord Injury. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 36:171-185 (2005)
The therapeutic effectiveness of near infrared light (NIR) has been determinate for decades. Genesis health light use NIR as main light resource produced in special radiators whose whole incoherent broad-band radiation of a full spectrum light is passed through a cuvette, containing water-like fluid. The spectrum of filtered light emphasises visible light and infrared-A (near infrared) which is called near infrared light (550-1400 nm) and eliminates ultraviolet and infrared-B and C (far infrared) which causes the majority heat over the skin (Figure 2). The Genesis light leads to high penetration properties (3-4 cm) with a low heat load to the surface of the skin9.
NIR is well accepted therapeutic tools in the treatment of infected, ischemic, and hypoxic wounds, along with other soft tissue injuries10. Positive effects include acceleration of wound healing, improvedrecovery from ischemic injury and pain relief 11. NIR produces a therapeutically usable field of heat in the tissue and increases tissue temperature, oxygen partial pressure and tissue perfusion8. These three factors are vital for a sufficient tissue supply with energy and oxygen. As inflammation and wound is the main pathology procedure in the above disorders, the defences of them all depend decisively on a sufficient supply with energy and oxygen8.
Low-intensity light therapy, (commonly referred to as “photobiomodulation”) by light in the near-infrared (NIR) modulates numerous cellular functions. Clinical and experimental applications of photobiomodulation have expanded over the past 30 years. NIR is well-accepted therapeutically in the treatment of infected, ischemic, and hypoxic wounds, along with other soft tissue injuries. Positive effects include acceleration of wound healing, improved recovery from ischemic injury, and attenuated degeneration in the injured nerve.
- Cellular response to infrared radiation involves retrograde mitochondrial signalling
- Changes in microregional perfusion, oxygenation, ATP and lactate distribution in subcutaneous rat tumours upon water-filtered IR-A hyperthermia
- Clinical and Experimental Applications of NIR-LED Photobiomodulation
- Enhancement of nitric oxide release from nitrosyl hemoglobin and nitrosyl myoglobin by red/near infrared radiation: Potential role in cardioprotection
- Low Intensity Light Therapy: Exploring the Role of Redox Mechanisms
- Mitochondrial mechanisms of photobiomodulation in context of new data about multiple roles of ATP
- Mitochondrial signal transduction in accelerated wound and retinal healing by near-infrared light therapy
- Near infrared light protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia and reoxygenation injury by a nitric oxide dependent mechanism
- Neuroprotection of Midbrain Dopaminergic Cells in MPTP-Treated Mice after Near-infrared Light Treatment
- Pretreatment with near-infrared light via light-emitting diode provides added benefit against rotenone- and MPP+-induced neurotoxicity
- Principles and working mechanisms of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in relation to wound healing
- Surface Extensions of 3T3 Cells towards Distant Infrared Light Sources
1. Low-Intensity Light Therapy: Exploring the Role of Redox Mechanisms. Tafur, Joseph. 4, s.l. : Photomedicine and laser surgery , 2008 , Vol. 26. 17-21.
2. Evolutionary biology: Essence of mitochondria. Katrin Henze, William Martin. 13, s.l. : Nature, 2003, Vol. 426. 127-128.
3. Role of reactive oxygen species in low level light therapy. Huang, Ying-ying, Arany, Praveen R. and Hamblin, Michael R. s.l. : Mechanisms for Low-light Therapy , 2009, Vol. 7165. 2-11.
4. The effects of laser radiation on wound healing and collagen synthesis. Mester, E., and Jaszsagi-Nargy, E. s.l. : Studia Biophys, 1973, Vol. 35. 227-230.
5. Effects of visible and near-infrared lasers on cell culture. Lubart, R., Wollman, Y., Friedman, H., et al. s.l. : J. Photochem. Photobiol., 1992, Vol. 12. 305-310.
6. Photobiomodulation directly benefits primary neurons functionally inactivated by toxins. Wong-Riley, M.M.T., Liang, H.L., Eells, J.T., et al. s.l. : J. Biol. Chem., 2005, Vol. 280. 4761-4771.
7. Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visibile to near-IR radiation on cells. Karu, T. s.l. : J. Photochem. Photobiol.Biol., 1999, Vol. 49. 1-17.
8. Principles and working mechanisms of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in relation to wound healing [review]. G., Hoffmann. 2, s.l. : GMS, 2007, Vol. 2. 54-64.
9. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) can act as a penetration enhancer for topically applied substances. Nina Otberg, Diego Grone, Lars Meyer, Sabine Schanzer, Gerd Hoffmann. s.l. : GMS, 2008, Vol. 6. 1612-1626.
10. Randomized clinical trial of the influence of local water-filtered infrared A irradiation on wound healing after abdominal surgery. Hartel M, Hoffmann G, Wente MN, Martignoni ME, Buchler MW, Friess H. s.l. : British Journal of Surgery, 2006, Vol. 93. 952-960.
11. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) in acute and chronic wounds. Hoffmann, Gerd. 2, s.l. : German Medical Sciences, 2009, Vol. 4. 1863-1893.
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