With globalization, however, international law and international relations have rapidly developed with increasing complexity: new technologies have made the world smaller and more interconnected, new global threats have emerged that could not be combated without the cooperation of states, new actors have appeared on the international forum such as various IOs and NSAs. International law has been strongly influenced by these developments and changes in international relations, with States no longer being the only actors on the international scene and therefore no longer the only subjects of international law. International law is based on rules that states have established for states. States are sovereign and equal in their relations and can therefore voluntarily create legally binding rules or agree to abide by them, usually in the form of a treaty or convention. By signing and ratifying treaties, States willingly establish legal and contractual relations with other States parties to a particular treaty, compliance with which is normally governed by the interactions of non-compliance. The ability of States to establish such relations with other States and to create legally binding rules for themselves derives from the international legal personality of States, a prerogative enjoyed by all sovereign States. The application of international legal entities to all peoples has been real and achievable as citizens of the United Nations since 1947. Indeed, the United Nations is the sole global issuer of legal entities for all Member States. Since the United Nations is the source, the transfer of personalities between States becomes trivial. The transfer to the United States of a United Nations citizen called Mexican is technically irrelevant; as U.S. citizens, they are also UN citizens. A legal presence/instrument for U.S. citizens is simply a specialized national international legal entity of the United Nations.

For a UN citizen, the border between countries is a trivial separation between UN economic zones. Until the expansion of NGOs in the 20th century, non-state actors had no legal personality at all. Once these entities have become actors, they generally do not acquire personality unless they are granted by the state in a law or contract. In general, international organizations, NGOs and businesses were seen as groups of individuals and addressees of international law, rather than as actors on the international scene. [4] However, NGOs in particular have played an increasingly important role in international politics and policy-making in recent decades. [7] It is not clear when NGOs actually played a role in international politics, but the first mention of groups influencing international politics dates back to 1826. [3] In 1911, these groups began to grow and attract attention, and in 1919, Dwight W. Morrow began using the term “NGO.” [3] Until 1943, researchers from various disciplines called these influential groups NGOs.

[3] After official recognition by the UN, NGOs could truly interact on the international scene. [8] The acquisition of an international personality has been an obstacle for NGOs in the past. In 1910 there was the first convention to confer legal personality, and in 1936 Charles Fenwick is quoted as saying that NGO representation “could be very effective in transcending national boundaries”. [3] In response to changes in global politics, approaches to obtaining and conferring international legal personality have changed several times. [4] These changes have led and will continue to lead to variations and challenges in the sources of international legal personality and the roles played by other international actors. States were the first to acquire international legal personality, followed by non-State actors (such as multinationals and NGOs) and individuals. [6] The 1986 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations established the definition of an international organization. The definition excluded non-governmental organizations and established the concept of legal personality. [5] The UN has globalized the personalities of all member states under one organization, a world government of governments. Since all UN member states receive their personality from the UN, legally speaking, there is only one world government with a single global citizenship like the United Nations.

The CERN Code of Conduct is protected by the copyright of the International Monetary Fund (under the auspices of the United Nations) and CERN license plates (“CDs”) are issued by the Diplomatic Corps; This indicates that CERN also uses the national international legal entities of the United Nations for international recognition. This stems from State sovereignty and the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of a State, which is gradually diminishing. A few decades ago, the question of how a Government treated its own citizens was a purely internal matter or an internal matter that did not concern other sovereign States, let alone the rest of the international community. For decades, the veil of state sovereignty seemed impenetrable until international and regional human rights law was accepted globally at unprecedented speed. The rights associated with obtaining international legal personality include the right to conclude treaties, the right to immunity, the right to send and receive legations and the right to assert international claims for compensation for damages. [5] Those who have international legal personality may sue and be sued, may conclude contracts, incur debts and pay various taxes. [5] NGOs with personality may participate directly in international bodies and organizations established by laws and treaties. You have the option to fund a cause instead of asking for funding for a cause. You even have certain legal rights and protections. [8] NGOs that are parties to the contract may file complaints of misconduct.

NGOs with a personality may eventually obtain representative status in international councils and assemblies. [7] Some NGOs, such as Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have been granted rights that governments usually grant to IOs. [3] NGOs are not held back by things like political parties and re-elections, they are simply allowed to lobby for what they think is the best choice. This freedom is usually found only in NGOs. This freedom gives NGOs a kind of flexibility and efficiency that other international actors do not address. More energy will inevitably come from an NGO than from an IGO, because NGOs are voluntary commitments. [3] NGO members are committed to their cause and tend to work harder to get things done. [7] NGOs are also capable of acting outside the realm of sovereignty in ways that governments and their organizations cannot do. Once an NGO has reached consultative status, it can do even more.

Advisory NGOs may receive official documents, attend meetings of various councils, be consulted by a Secretary-General or committee, and participate in hearings in various ways. [8] The international responsibility of individuals was subsequently upheld by various tribunals such as the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, which was specifically established by the UN Security Council to prosecute individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide under international law. International legal personality is an important aspect of international law that has evolved throughout history as a means of international representation and the ability to conclude treaties and initiate international judicial proceedings. The acquisition of personality comes with privileges and international rights and obligations. International legal personality is the inherent capacity of States and is made available to international organizations through basic legal acts (statutes or “constitutions”) or international conventions. There are theories to consider when deciding how to apply international legal personality and where the power comes from. After World War II, the Security Council established two ad hoc international tribunals to try war crimes committed during the war. The Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals have confirmed that, in certain circumstances, individuals may have legal personality under international law and may have the capacity to have rights and obligations directly under international law, in particular humanitarian and human rights law.

For the first time in the history of international law, individuals have been held responsible for international crimes such as war crimes and crimes against humanity, which are prohibited by customary international law as well as several international conventions. At the beginning of the 18th century, only sovereign states were considered legitimate under international law and therefore the only units under international law. As such, states were (and largely are) the all-powerful creators of international law, which in turn primarily concerned states and their international behavior. Individuals, international organisations (IOs) and other non-state actors (NSAs) are not relevant to international law because they do not have an international legal personality which is a prerequisite for the capacity to have international rights and/or obligations. The treatment of persons in foreign territory has been regulated for decades by customary international law and conventions. These rules protect States` own citizens, when they are in a foreign territory, from the illegal acts of the foreign State.